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Original research (Published On: 01-May-2023 )

Phytochemical screening and antioxidants activities of four different solvent extracts of Justicia secunda leaf extracts

Ushie OA, Bako B, Malu SP and Kendeson AC

J. Chem. Res. Adv., 04 (01):15-20

Ushie OA : Department of Chemical Science, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Bako B : Department of Chemical Science, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Malu SP : Department of Chemical Science, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Kendeson AC : Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University of Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria

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Article History: Received on: 15-Feb-23, Accepted on: 25-Apr-23, Published on: 01-May-23

Corresponding Author: Ushie OA

Email: ushie@fuwukari.edu.ng

Citation: Bako B, Ushie OA, Malu SP and Kendeson AC (2023). Phytochemical screening and antioxidants activities of four different solvent extracts of Justicia secunda leaf extracts. J. Chem. Res. Adv., 04 (01 ):15-20


Abstract

Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate phytochemical and antioxidant capabilities of the crude extracts of J. secunda leaves from four different solvents in increasing polarities, with the idea of isolating some of the metabolites.

Method and Materials: J. secunda leaves collected from their natural habitat in Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria, was macerated for 96 hours in hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol in increasing polarity; the crude extracts were concentrated at 40 ºC and used for the analyses. The percentage yields of the crude extracts were as follows:  hexane 2.44 %, ethyl acetate 1.24 %, acetone 3.34 %, and methanol 5.33 %.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed that it contained secondary metabolites, with tannins and phenols present in all the extracts, terpenoids and phlobatannins were present in ethyl acetate acetone and methanol extracts only, steroids was present on hexane extract only while, anthraquinones was found in only methanol extract. The antioxidant activity using DPPH assay method was concentration dependant and showed that the methanol extract exhibit the highest antioxidant activity within the concentration rang of (0.0313 – 0.5 mg/mL) than the other extracts when compared with that of the standard drug (vitamin C).  Among the extracts, methanol had the highest antioxidant potential with an increase in the percentage inhibition of 16.22 – 61.62 % as the sample concentration increased from 0.0313 – 0.5 mg/mL and IC50 value of 35.49 mg/mL; acetone had percentage inhibition of 23.24 – 55.14 % (41.73 mg/mL); ethyl acetate had percentage inhibition of 22.16 – 47.57 % (53.31 mg/mL). The least was hexane with an increase in the percentage inhibition of 16.22 – 45.41 % and IC50 value of 56.81 mg/mL when compared with that of the standard (vitamin C) having a percentage inhibition increase of 28.11 – 76.22 % and IC50 value of 22.76 mg/mL.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the crude extracts possess antioxidant activities which may be as a result of the phytochemicals present in the plant giving credence to the use of the plant by most people implying that the plant can be harnessed for it antioxidant potential in developing antioxidant drugs.


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