Review article (Published On: 10-May-2022 )

Physicochemical and analytical implications of GATES, GEB and GEM

T Michałowski and AM Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk

J. Chem. Res. Adv., 03 (01):01-09

T Michałowski : Department of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland

AM Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk : Department of Oncology, The University Hospital in Cracow, Poland

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Article History: Received on: 23-Jan-22, Accepted on: 07-May-22, Published on: 10-May-22

Corresponding Author: T Michałowski


Citation: Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk AM and Michałowski T (2022). Physicochemical and analytical implications of GATES, GEB and GEM. J. Chem. Res. Adv., 03 (01 ):01-09


The fundamental property of electrolytic systems involved with linear combination f12 = 2∙f(O) – f(H) of elemental balances: f1 = f(H) for Y1 = H, and f2 = f(O) for Y2 = O, is presented. The dependency/independency of the f12 on charge balance (f0 = ChB) and other elemental and/or core balances fk = f(Yk) (k=3,…,K) is the general criterion distinguishing between non-redox and redox systems. The f12 related to a redox system is the primary form of a Generalized Electron Balance (GEB), formulated for redox systems within the Generalized Approach to Electrolytic System (GATES) as GATES/GEB  GATES. The set of K balances f0,f12,f3,…,fK is necessary/sufficient/needed to solve an electrolytic redox system, while the K-1 balances f0,f3,…,fK are the set applied to solve an electrolytic non-redox system. The identity (0 = 0) procedure of checking the linear independency/dependency property of f12 within the set f0,f12,f3,…,fK (i) provides the criterion distinguishing between the redox and non-redox systems and (ii) specifies oxidation numbers (ONs) of elements in particular components of the system, and in the species formed in the system. Some chemical concepts, perceived as derivative within GATES, are indicated.


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